Battery Technology

Latest Battery Technology for Electric Vehicles

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In the current market, the craze for Electric Vehicles has been booming day by day and at the same time, the demand for Battery technologies is also spurring. In the present scenario, the pollution level of the world is on the verge of the level and different countries’ ministers are coming together to sooth the carbon emission.

According to the report published by the Evans Data Corporation, the market size of the e-bike/e-vehicles are expected to grow 400 million units by 2025 at 6.39% CAG rate.

Recently, some electric vehicles have been shown to ignite effortlessly, and scientists continue to work on battery technology. Here, I am going to highlight some of the electric vehicle battery technologies on the market today, which will help you develop your knowledge a bit.

EV Charging Tech

How Does an Electric Vehicle Battery Work?

The battery is a vital component in electric vehicles (EVs) as it stores the energy in the battery to run the electric motor, which is directly influencing the EV’s performance and driving range. EV batteries come in various shapes and sizes. And it’s operated on the principle of using chemical reactions between anode and cathode to store and release electrical energy. According to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory report, fleets operate the performance of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. EVs store energy as electric energy that powers one or more motors. The electric energy stored in the battery is recharged by connecting the battery to an external electric power source. So, the most prevalent type of EV battery is the lithium-ion battery, commonly found in portable electronics like laptops and cell phones.

Lithium-ion batteries function as a positive electrode (cathode) composed of lithium and a negative electrode (anode) made of carbon and therefore separator, electrolyte, and two current collectors—one positive and one negative. During the charging process, lithium ions travel from the cathode to the anode, and when discharging, they flow from the anode back to the cathode. This movement of ions generates an electric current that powers the electric motor of the vehicle.

In EV batteries are considerably required larger battery as compared to the smaller batteries in laptops and cell phones. The SSB batteries are designed to bear high temperatures, vibrations, and shocks while delivering sustained high-power output over extended periods of time.

List of Battery Technology for Electric Vehicles

(a) Solid-state batteries

Solid-state batteries are an innovative type of battery technology that is built with the help of a solid electrolyte rather than a liquid one. The main positive things of the SSB battery rather than the Li-Ion Battery is such as improving energy density, reducing flammability, safety, performance, manufacturability, and extended lifespan. The utilization of solid-state batteries holds great promise for electric vehicles, as they have the capacity to substantially enhance range capabilities and decrease charging durations. Currently, it is used in pacemakers and smartwatches.

(b) Lithium-sulfur batteries

Lithium -Sulfur batteries are a type of battery that is built with the help of lithium and sulfur materials. These batteries are having significant potential as it offers high energy density as compared to traditional lithium-ion batteries. It works on the principle of the migration between the positive and negative electrodes during charge and discharge cycles. In this battery, the positive electrode (cathode) is the sulfur ion while the negative electrode (anode) is the lithium ion. During the discharge process, the sulfur at the cathode experiences a series of chemical processes that transform it into lithium sulfide and during the charging, the lithium sulfide in the cathode is converted into sulfur, and then lithium ions are released from the sulfur, and travel to the anode. This process will be continued multiple times.

(c) Cobalt-free lithium-ion batteries

Cobalt-free lithium-ion batteries refer to a type of lithium-ion battery that reduces the use of cobalt in its cathode material. Cobalt is a valuable but scarce and expensive miner that is frequently used in lithium-ion batteries due to its ability to enhance energy density and overall performance. However, there are concerns regarding the ethical and environmental implications of cobalt mining, such as child labor and environmental damage.

(d) Sodium-ion batteries

Sodium-ion batteries are a type of battery in which sodium ions (Na+) are used as the charge carriers instead of the more commonly used lithium ions (Li+). In the sodium ion battery, the anode is made up of carbon-based materials, such as hard carbon or graphite while the cathode in the sodium-ion batteries is composed of different materials such as transition metal oxides or phosphates. During charging, sodium ions from the electrolyte are attracted to the anode but in the discharge period, the sodium ions return to the cathode. And the flow of sodium ions between the anode and cathode is processed by the electrolyte.

(e) Iron air batteries

The Iron-air batteries are made up of iron as the anode and oxygen from the air as the cathode. The working procedure of the iron-air batteries is based on the electrochemical reaction between iron and oxygen, which results in the generation of electrical energy. In this type of battery, the anode is the iron which serves as the source of electrons while the cathode for this battery is oxygen.

(f) Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries

It is the combination of the nickel oxide hydroxide (NiOOH) as the positive electrode (cathode) and a metal hydride alloy as the negative electrode (anode). This type of battery consists of different features such as higher energy density, reduce memory effect, more environmentally friendly, higher self-discharge rate, widely available and more cost-effective, and Safety procedure.

(g) Recycling Battery Technology

Battery recycling is the process of recycling activity with the aim of reducing the number of disposals of battery which creates a hazardous situation in the environment Since the battery is made up of several poisonous chemicals and heavy metals, it actually causes soil pollution, water pollution, air pollution, etc. when it contacts with the soil and the environment. So, battery recycling technology is very important to save the environment from battery disposal. Different companies are now on the same track to recycle the battery on the eve of electric vehicle technology.

(h) EV Battery Software

EV battery software refers to the software systems and technologies used in electric vehicles (EVs) to manage and optimize the performance, efficiency, and longevity of the battery pack. These software solutions play a crucial role in monitoring and controlling various aspects of the battery, including charging and discharging cycles, temperature regulation, cell balancing, and overall health management. This EV battery software provides different functionalities such as BMS, charge management, range estimation, thermal management, predictive analytics, OTA update, user interface, mobile apps, etc.

Factors to Consider When Choosing Electric Vehicles Batteries

While choosing electric vehicle (EV) batteries, several critical factors must be considered to ensure optimal performance, longevity, and overall satisfaction with your EV. If the battery’s packaging does not match your vehicle’s requirements, it won’t give you the perfect performance and range, and you may face accidental risks. Therefore, you need to see the available space in the battery pack, battery pack design, etc. So, below, we’ll explain all of these essential requirements that you must focus on while choosing to use a good EV battery.

1. Battery Capacity and Range

One of the most significant considerations is the battery’s capacity, which directly influences the EV’s range and tells the battery energy stored in the battery. It suggests how much energy a battery can store, which is generally expressed in amperes per hour (Ah), and a higher capacity means a more extended range due to charges. 

Watt – Hour calculation

Amp-Hours (Ah) x Voltage (V) = Watt -Hour (Wh)

So, according to the formulae, if I consider that the vehicle required 60 Wh for covering a 1-mile distance where battery voltage is 30V and Amp- Hours is 20Ah, then….

20 Ah x 30 V = 600 Wh

And, also I considered 1 mile = 60 Wh, then in 600 Wh, the vehicle will cover…..

600 Wh x (1 -mile /60 Wh) = 10 Miles

So, while choosing an EV, you need to keep in mind the battery pack’s final size and theoretical range, which indirectly indicates the capacity in kWh, etc. So, in the same way, you can decide on a battery pack for motorcycles or scooters.

However, balancing capacity with your actual needs is essential, as larger batteries are more expensive and heavier, which can also affect the vehicle’s efficiency.

2. Charging Speed and Infrastructure

Charging speed is another crucial factor. Suppose you are thinking of buying an Electric Vehicle or an Electric Bike. In that case, you need to know about the vehicle’s charging speed specification, which will give you the overall user experience. The Hyundai Ioniq 5 is an example of an EV with excellent fast-charging capabilities. 

The ability to quickly charge your EV can significantly impact its convenience, especially for long trips. Look for EVs with fast-charging capabilities, but also consider the availability of charging infrastructure in your area or along your regular routes.

But there is another factor: if you charge your battery at an 80% level, which preserves its health level, it can also lose the potential range in cold temperatures. Due to this, the effect of driving at highway speeds can reduce the vehicle’s effective range.

3. Battery Chemistry and Temperature Tolerance

Selecting the battery for your EV is the most critical factor. Do you need to know that the battery has its more extended range with less power, or do you need more power with less long-lasting?
The use of electric vehicles mostly depends on the environmental conditions. If you live in an icy area, temperatures below zero degrees Celsius may affect the battery’s chemistry.

Different battery chemistries offer varying benefits. If I talk about the lithium-ion battery, the most popular battery in EVs, most people have also seen it on their mobile phones. The Li-Ion battery’s cost is higher than the Lead-Ion battery’s. But a Li-Ion battery is the best alternative if you live in a cold environment.

The lithium-iron-phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries are standard in EVs, with LiFePO4 generally offering better temperature tolerance, which is crucial in extreme climates. The battery’s operating temperature range should match the environmental conditions where you plan to use the EV. The operating range of both batteries is between 10-60 degrees Celsius.

4. Battery Life and Degradation

The lifespan of an EV battery is affected by several factors, including charging habits and the vehicle’s operating conditions. Therefore, the battery life also depends on the battery’s chemistry, and the most common factors, such as environment, charging rate, charging voltage, depth of discharge (DoD), etc., are considered.
However, there is another factor that most vehicle owners don’t know: if you are not using your e-vehicle regularly, not using it for more than 15 days or a month, and also if you are living in the winter or summer area, you still need to charge your battery two days a week, or else the battery will be discharged soon. The chemicals in the battery will suddenly come out, which is called battery damage.
Another factor that impacts the battery’s lifespan is your EV battery overcharging. To maximize battery life, it is recommended to maintain the charge between 20% and 80% and avoid frequent use of fast chargers. Battery warranties, typically around eight years/100,000 miles, can also indicate the expected lifespan. Once a month, you need to fully discharge your battery, which will also improve its lifespan.

5. Cost and Warranty

The battery cost is a significant portion of an EV’s price. Although the government and private organizations offer different incentives to purchase electric vehicles, other organizations are trying to build new innovative technology for electric cars. At the same time, higher-capacity batteries offer longer ranges but also have a higher price tag. Evaluate the total cost of ownership, including potential savings on fuel and maintenance. Additionally, consider the warranty offered for the battery, as it can provide peace of mind and protect against premature failure.

Conclusion

Battery technology for electric vehicles represents a significant milestone in the future of transportation. Over the years, advances in battery technology have begun to gradually revolutionize the electric vehicle industry such as addressing the primary concerns of range, charging time, overall performance, etc. So, in this context, I have explained the battery technologies in the market for electric vehicles.

Hello everyone, my name is Debash Biswas. I am a support engineer in an automobile manufacturing company, which makes me more helpful in writing content because I also have good knowledge about car manufacturing companies. I have also been working as a content writer since 2021. My hobbies are riding a car, reading books, reading newspapers, etc. If you liked my article, please share it with your friends. You can follow me on Twitter and Facebook. Thanks to all readers.

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